This document helps the user to build, train, and test the classical Logistic Regression (LogReg) model using the Razorthink aiOS SDK.


You want to create a ML model. For example, there is a dataset on which you want to build a classifier model using logistic regression.


Create a Model Block for LogisticRegression which will perform the logistic regression operation. Create a generic classifier block to handle the training and inference of a model.

fit - This function contains the logic needed to train the model.

import requests
import os
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import razor
from razor.platform import project_space_path
from abc import abstractmethod
from razor import inputs,outputs,Block,Pipeline
from razor.core.blocks.models import ModelBlock

from razor.core.blocks.models import ModelBlock
from abc import abstractmethod
import pickle
import os
from sklearn import metrics

class Classifier(ModelBlock):

    def create_model(self, **kwargs):
        Should create and return the model object

    def attribute_func(self, *args, **kwargs):
        Should return the attribute values

    def operation_func(self, *args, **kwargs):
        Should return the operation reuslts

    def load_saved_model(self, path):
        t = self.get_save_path(path=path)
        t = os.path.join(t, 'model.sav')
        self.model = pickle.load(open(t, 'rb'))

    def save_model(self, path):
        t = self.create_save_path(path=path)
        t = os.path.join(t, 'model.sav')
        pickle.dump(self.model, open(t, 'wb'))

    def persist_train(self, x_data, y_data, path):
        self.load_saved_model(path), y_data)

    def transform(self, x_data, predictions):

    def fit(self, x_data, y_data, test_x_data, test_y_data, metric_function, average, operation, predictions, attribute,
            model_attributes, path, params):
        if path is not None and len(path) != 0:

        pred = self.operation_func(x_data=x_data, y_data=y_data, test_x_data=test_x_data, test_y_data=test_y_data,
                                   operation=operation, metric_function=metric_function, average=average, params=params)
        predictions.put([pred] if isinstance(pred, (int, float, str)) else pred)

        if attribute is not None and len(attribute) != 0:
            attr_value = self.attribute_func(attribute)
            print(f"{attribute}: ", attr_value)
            model_attributes.put([attr_value] if isinstance(attr_value, (int, float, str)) else attr_value)

        if all(v is not None for v in [x_data, y_data]) or all(
                v is not None for v in [test_x_data, test_y_data]) and operation != "evaluate":
            if test_x_data is None:
                test_x_data, test_y_data = x_data, y_data
            self.evaluate(test_x_data, test_y_data, metric_function, average)

    def evaluate(self, test_x_data, test_y_data, metric_function, average):
        metric_func = {"accuracy_score": metrics.accuracy_score,
                       "precision_score": metrics.precision_score,
                       "recall_score": metrics.recall_score,
                       "f1_score": metrics.f1_score,
                       "confusion_matrix": metrics.confusion_matrix}
        metric_function = [metric_function] if not isinstance(metric_function, list) else metric_function
        final_metrics = []
        for _metric_function in metric_function:
            eval_metric = metric_func.get(_metric_function, None)
            if _metric_function not in ["accuracy_score", "confusion_matrix"]:
                _metric_value = eval_metric(test_y_data, self.model.predict(test_x_data), average=average)
                _metric_value = eval_metric(test_y_data, self.model.predict(test_x_data))
            print(f'{_metric_function}: ', _metric_value)

        return (final_metrics if len(final_metrics) > 1 else final_metrics[0])

Create an instance of LogisticRegression class with following parameters and train the model by invoking execute():

  • penalty - Specify the norm used in the penalization (default= 'l2').
  • tol - Specify tolerance for stopping criteria (default=0.0001).
  • C - Specify regularization parameter (default=1.0).
  • class_weight - Weightage to be given to each class in the data (default=None).
  • random_state - Seed value of the random number generator (default=None).
  • solver - Specify optimization algorithm to use (default='lbfgs').
  • max_iter - Maximum iterations for the solvers to converge (default=100).
  • n_jobs - Specify number of CPU cores to be used when parallelizing (default=None).
  • x_data - Data on which the model is to be trained.
  • y_data - Target values corresponding to each data point in train data.
  • test_x_data - Test data on which the model is to be evaluated.
  • test_y_data - Test target values corresponding to each data point in test_x_data.
  • operation - Defines what operation to perform.
  • For training model - fit
  • For Predicting model - predict
  • For evaluating model - evaluate
  • attribute - Specify suitable attribute from the following, to be found from the trained model. classes_, coef_, intercept_, n_iter_.
  • metric_function - Specify suitable evaluation metric from the folloeing, that best suits for the problem that you are dealing with. confusion_matrix, accuracy_score, precision_score, recall_score, f1_score, roc_curve.
  • path - Specify the path where the trained model is to be saved.

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression as Logrec

@inputs.atomic.generic('penalty', doc="{‘l1’, ‘l2’, ‘elasticnet’, ‘none’}", default= 'l2')
@inputs.atomic.generic('dual', default=False)
@inputs.atomic.generic('tol', default=0.0001)
@inputs.atomic.generic('C', default=1.0)
@inputs.atomic.generic('fit_intercept', default=True)
@inputs.atomic.generic('intercept_scaling', default=1)
@inputs.atomic.generic('class_weight', default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic('random_state', default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic('solver', default='lbfgs')
@inputs.atomic.generic('max_iter', default=100)
@inputs.atomic.generic('multi_class', default='auto')
@inputs.atomic.generic('verbose', default=0)
@inputs.atomic.generic('warm_start', default=False)
@inputs.atomic.generic('n_jobs', default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic('l1_ratio', default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic('mode', default="FIT")
@inputs.atomic.generic('operation', default="model_instance",
                       doc="fit, decision_function, densify, predict, predict_proba, predict_log_proba, sparsify, evaluate, score, model_instance, get_params, set_params"
@inputs.atomic.generic('attribute', default=None,
                       doc="classes_, coef_, intercept_, n_iter_")
@inputs.atomic.generic("test_x_data", required=False)
@inputs.atomic.generic("test_y_data", required=False)
@inputs.atomic.generic("metric_function", default="accuracy_score")
@inputs.atomic.generic("average", default="binary")
@inputs.atomic.generic("path", default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic("params", default=None)
class LogisticRegression(Classifier):
        Logistic Regression from sklearn
    def create_model(self, penalty, dual, tol, C, fit_intercept, intercept_scaling, class_weight, random_state, solver,
                     max_iter, multi_class, verbose, warm_start, n_jobs, l1_ratio):
        return Logrec(penalty=penalty, dual=dual, tol=tol, C=C, fit_intercept=fit_intercept,
                                         intercept_scaling=intercept_scaling, class_weight=class_weight,
                                         random_state=random_state, solver=solver,
                                         max_iter=max_iter, multi_class=multi_class, verbose=verbose,
                                         warm_start=warm_start, n_jobs=n_jobs, l1_ratio=l1_ratio)

    def operation_func(self, x_data, y_data, test_x_data, test_y_data, operation, metric_function, average, params):
        func = {"fit":, "decision_function": self.model.decision_function,
                "predict": self.model.predict, "densify": self.model.densify,
                "predict_log_proba": self.model.predict_log_proba, "predict_proba": self.model.predict_proba,
                "sparsify": self.model.sparsify, "score": self.model.score, "evaluate": self.evaluate, "model_instance": self.model,
                "get_params": self.model.get_params, "set_params": self.model.set_params}

        method = func.get(operation, None)
        if operation in ["fit", "score"]:
            pred = method(x_data, y_data)
        elif operation in ["decision_function", "predict", "predict_proba", "predict_log_proba"]:
            pred = method(x_data)
        elif operation in ["evaluate"]:
            if test_x_data is None:
                test_x_data, test_y_data = x_data, y_data
            pred = self.evaluate(test_x_data, test_y_data, metric_function, average)
        elif operation in ['get_params', 'densify', 'sparsify']:
            pred = method()
        elif operation == 'set_params':
            pred = method(**params)
            pred = method
        return pred

    def attribute_func(self, attribute):
        k = self.model
        attr = {"classes_": k.classes_, "coef_": k.coef_,
                "intercept_": k.intercept_, "n_iter_": k.n_iter_}
        attr_value = attr.get(attribute, None)
        return attr_value

Defining a Train pipeline

As a user you want to use the logistic regression model in a train pipeline.

Block 1 - Reads a CSV in chunks and gives a series output.

@inputs.atomic.generic("url", required=True)
@inputs.atomic.generic("filename", required=True)
class DropBoxReader(Block):
    def run(self, url, filename, output_file):
            file_path = project_space_path(filename)
            r = requests.get(url)
            open(file_path , 'wb').write(r.content)
        except Exception as e:

@inputs.atomic.generic("filename", required=True)
@inputs.atomic.generic("delimiter", default = None)
@inputs.atomic.generic("chunk_size", default=10)
@inputs.atomic.generic("nrows", default=None)
class CsvReader(Block):
    def run(self, filename, delimiter, chunk_size, nrows, output):
        file_path = project_space_path(filename)
        chunks = pd.read_csv(file_path, chunksize=chunk_size, nrows=nrows, delimiter = delimiter)
        for df in chunks:

Block 2 - Filters out the rows in which Nan is present.

@inputs.series.generic("df_chunks", required=True)
class DfFilterNan(Block):
    def run(self, df_chunks, columns, output):
        concat_df = pd.DataFrame()
        for df in df_chunks:
            df.dropna(axis=0, inplace=True)
            concat_df = pd.concat([concat_df, df])

Block 3 - Converts the categorical columns to numerical values.

@inputs.atomic.generic("df", required=True)
class DfCategorical(Block):
    def run(self, df, columns, output):
        for col in columns:
            df[col] = df[col].astype('category')
            df[col] = df[col]

Block 4 - Returns the Features and Labels from a dataframe.

@inputs.atomic.generic("y_column", default=None)
@inputs.atomic.generic("df", required=True)
class Get_data(Block):
    def run(self, df, x_columns, y_column, out_x, out_y):
        if y_column is not None and len(y_column)!=0:
            x = df[x_columns].values
            y = np.squeeze(df[y_column].values)
            x = df[x_columns].values

Define the Training Pipeline.

dropbox_reader = (

csv_reader = CsvReader(filename=dropbox_reader.output_file)

df_filter = (DfFilterNan()
            .columns(["Age", "Cabin"])

df_cat = (DfCategorical()
         .columns(["Sex", "Cabin", "Embarked"])

train_data = (Get_data()
             .x_columns(['PassengerId', 'Pclass', 'Sex', 'Age', 'SibSp', 'Fare', 'Cabin', 'Embarked'])

lr_model_train = (LogisticRegression()

train_pipeline = Pipeline(targets=[lr_model_train])

Executing the training pipeline in the Jupyter Notebooks.